aurangzeb religious policy

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Sometimes this led him to adopt contradictory policies which damaged the empire. Even the theological elements in the emperor’s camp were not impressed by Aurangzeb’s religious propaganda. However, this anti-Hindu policy lacked proper implementation. He considered it a superstitious practice and against Islam. Numerous wars with the Sikhs, the Marathas, the Jats and the Rajputs. The main necessity of Aurangzeb now was to subdue and win over the large number of Hindu rajas, zamindars operating in the area. Thus, if Aurangzeb’s objective had been to effect the forcible conversions of the Hindus, he might have attempted it in the newly conquered territories in the Deccan. However, if we look past this, it becomes clear that Aurangzeb’s main concern was the maintenance of the empire, and not religion. During his long reign period, the Mughal Empire reached its territorial climax. In this respect, he was just the opposite of his great grandfather Akbar. This argument has however, been contested with the counter-argument that Hindus had stubbornly clung to their faith despite the prevalence of Muslim rule in the subcontinent for over 400 years. Aurangzeb's religious policy is based on the Islamic theory of kinship. (ii) To adopt anti-Hindu measures. During this time, Aurangzeb greatly expanded the territory of the Mughal Empire. Sharma and A.L. The main necessity of Aurangzeb now was to subdue and win over the large number of Hindu rajas, zamindars operating in the area. Why does America want to back out of Open Skies Treaty? Learn how your comment data is processed. The re-imposition of jizya by Aurangzeb in 1679 has also been viewed in the context of the acute unemployment among the theological classes. While taking his stand on the Hanafi school of Muslim law, which had been traditionally followed in India, Aurangzeb did not hesitate in issuing secular decrees, called ‘zawabit.’. He could hardly forget the political reality that the overwhelming population of India was Hindu, and that they were deeply attached to their faith. Occasional cases of conversion did take place but they were among the small zamindars or petty state employees. He had equal regard for all religious system and he believed in the essential unity of all religions. The religious policy of Akbar was very liberal. 1. However, because of majority of social demand, Aurangzeb had to permit this ceremony for his sons when they recovered from illness. A collection of his decrees had been collected in a work known as Zawabit-i-Alamgiri. Aurangzeb had a tragic death near Ahmednagar. He ruled over most of the Indian subcontinent through Islamic Sharia. 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The pious ruler of an Islamic state replaced the seasoned statesman of a mixed kingdom; Hindus became subordinates, not colleagues, and the Marathas, like the southern Muslim kingdoms, were marked for annexation rather than containment.The first overt sign of change was the reimposition of the jizya, or … It is interesting to note that the largest number of Persian works on classical Indian music were written during Aurangzeb's reign. Sir my self Suresh Bhardwaj. He also allowed that the old places of worship could be repaired "since buildings cannot last forever.". Aurangzeb reacted to these threats by emphasizing Islam as the only bond of unity in the highly segmented ruling class. Being a fanatic Sunni, Aurangzeb observed and practiced the principles of Islam strictly; he had such faith in Islam that he refused even to think that there could be truth in other religions as well. Such converts either expected confirmation or grant of zamindari or preferential treatment for official posts. I’m big fan your website, Your email address will not be published. Now analysing more about Aurangzeb's religious policies as a ruler, his religious policies can be divided mainly into two broad phases, the first lasting up to 1679, and the second from 1679 to his death in 1707. Log in. Mustaid Khan, author of the Maasir-i-Alamgiri mentioned that with reference to the destruction of the temple of Keshava Rai at Mathura, "On seeing this instance of the strength of the Emperor's faith and the grandeur of his devotion to God, the proud rajas were subdued, and in amazement they stood like images facing the wall." His great-grandfather had striven to remove the religious and social barriers which divided the various classes of his subjects, and, though exception can be taken to his methods, none can be taken to the end which he had in view. Aurangzeb appointed Muhtasibs in all the provinces. Aurangzeb’s religious policy led to series of contractions, which he found hard to resolve. He was a strict disciplinarian who did not spare even his own sons. Aurangzeb’s religious policy had two aspects i.e: To promote the tenets of Islam and to ensure that the people led their lives accordingly. His other sons also had to face his wrath on various occasions. The extension of the empire was also one of the purposes of Aurangzeb. S.R. Passing such judgment would be historically incorrect. In this, he gave the orders that Quranic verses will not be written on coins. Appointment of non-Muslim on high ranks offices: A Farman addressed by Aurangzeb that there should be one hindu and one muslim on each of the civil and military departments of the state.There were a good number of Hindus who occupied the key posts in the civil and military department of the state during his reign. The famous temple of Somnath, which he ordered to be destroyed, was earlier in his reign. Aurangzeb was a staunch conservative Sunni Muslim, he considered the importance of Islam as the basis of his rule to the Qur’an ( Shariat ). He wanted to overthrow the practice of the infidels. Thus, Aurangzeb impressed upon the foremost nobles of Bijapur, that his actions were directed against Sambhaji. He was of the view that kingship was a gift of God. Iran. Aurangzeb’s religious policy was largely responsible for the downfall of the Mughal Empire. However, when the Maratha resistance stiffened after 1698, he wrote darkly to Zulfiqar Ali Khan that ‘the demolition of a temple is possible at any time, as it cannot walk away from its place’. So, Aurangzeb did not understand that to rule in India, he has to be a rational person. During this time, Aurangzeb greatly expanded the territory of the Mughal Empire. Simply suggesting that Aurangzeb’s policies were only loosely implemented gets us no closer to understanding the possibly complex interplay of Aurangzeb’s personal religious commitments, his obligations as a Mughal sovereign, and the rise of non-Muslim political communities. Aurangzeb issued orders to the governors of all provinces to prohibit such practices and to destroy all those temples where such practices took place. Aurangzeb reversed the policy which was enunciated by Akbar and pursued by Jahangir and Shah Jahan.The Rajputs were the greatest obstacle in his pursuance of policy against the Hindus. Aurangzeb was born on 4 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat.He was the third son and sixth child of Shah Jahan and Mumtaz Mahal.His father was a governor of Gujarat at that time. Recent research has established that the number of Hindus in the various echelons of the nobility did not decline, but actually increased after 1679. Aurangzeb’s religious policy . Ask your question. In 1672, Aurangzeb canceled all the land grants previously issued to the Hindus and other religious groups, probably to please the Ulama. “The religious policy of Aurangzeb was disastrous. Though jizya was a regressive tax, and bore heavily on the poor than the rich, there is no proof of any large scale conversions during his reign on account of this measure. Instead, Aurangzeb was a religiously-minded leader who strove hard to ensure an Islamic character permeated through all his actions as leader. In 1686, Aurangzeb imprisoned prince Muazzam on a charge of intriguing with the ruler of Golconda, and kept him in prison for 12 long years. The First Phase- 1658 to 1679 The first phase begins from the year of his succession in 1658 to 1679 spanning over a period of twenty one years. For the theologians, the imposition of jizya was a badge of the inferior and dependent status of the Hindus and a means of asserting the position of the Muslims as the ruling class, and thereby also asserting the superior status of the ulema, the upholders of the true faith, in the state. Aurangzeb banned the festival of Nauroz , as it was considered as Zoroastrian practice favored by the Safavid rulers of Iran. Aurangzeb prohibited astrologers from preparing almanacs. As a political and religious conservative, Aurangzeb chose not to follow the secular-religious viewpoints of his predecessors after his ascension. Aurangzeb declared in a farman granted to a priest of Benaras in 1659, that his religion forbade him to allow construction of new temples, but there was no bar on the destruction of old ones. To promote trade among the Muslims who depended (almost) exclusively on state support, Aurangzeb exempted Muslim traders from the payment of cess. Aurangzeb’s attitude towards temples varied according to time and circumstances. While appointing Muhtasibs, though, Aurangzeb emphasized that the state was also responsible for the moral welfare of the citizens. Source: MANAS[see also Aurangzeb: A Political History; Aurangzeb: Religious Policies;Mughal Empire] In Indian history, the syncretistic and communalist viewpoints have conventionally been represented, to take one case in point, by offering a contrast between the lives of the two emperors under whom the Mughal Empire was at its zenith, Akbar (reigned 1556-1605) and Aurangzeb … He also built the Lahore Badshahi Masjid, and Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad for his wife Rabia. At the beginning of his reign, Aurangzeb prohibited the kalma being inscribed on coins, as it trampled underfoot or be defiled while passing from one hand to another. Shah Jahan had already moved away from the liberalism of Akbar , although in a token manner rather than with the intent of suppressing Hinduism, [70] [b] and Aurangzeb took the change still further. The phase of growing rigidity, which began in 1666, and included the re-imposition of jizya in 1679, has been highlighted by Sarkar. 1559 AD In Aurangzeb, many Ordinances have been circulated for the reorganization of the rules of Islamic conduct according to the laws of the Quran. The final phase continued from 1687 up to Aurangzeb’s death in 1707. He appointed Mutahids (Moral Teacher) to teach morality to Muslims. He came out with religious cum economic reforms. What people view as Aurangzeb’s botched and discriminatory religious… Rajput policies adopted by Aurangzeb were strict and stern. In 1683, when he visited the caves of Ellora, he noted that images with life like forms have been carved and did not try to destroy them. However, if we look past this, it becomes clear that Aurangzeb’s main concern was the maintenance of the empire, and not religion. During the second phase, Aurangzeb was inclined to believe that he could drive a wedge between the Deccani rulers and the Marathas by appealing to the religious sentiments of the former, and holding out various material inducements to their employees. Akbar tried to harmonise all the main policies of the major religions in this new religious policy. He had the reputation of being orthodox, God fearing Muslim. After about 1680, Aurangzeb’s reign underwent a change of both attitude and policy. He created a separate department to enforce moral codes under a high-powered officer called Muhtasib. Aurangzeb’s personal life was marked by simplicity. The pious ruler of an Islamic state replaced the seasoned statesman of a mixed kingdom; Hindus became subordinates, not colleagues, and the Marathas, like the southern Muslim kingdoms, were marked for annexation rather than containment.The first overt sign of change was the reimposition of the jizya, or … No part of this website contents may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior permission of Sansar Lochan, NCERT और NIOS की किताबों को खरीदें या उन्हें PDF के रूप में डाउनलोड करने के लिए क्लिक करें >, Religious Policy of Aurangzeb and Ideologies, “Religious Policy of Aurangzeb and Ideologies”. He was a strict follower of the Sunni sect, to the extent that he persecuted the members of the Shia sect. 1. For instance, Qazi Shaikh-ul-Islam, the sadr of the Imperial Army refused to give a fatwa that war against Muslim kings i.e. Aurangzeb’s relation with the ulema is also of importance. Apart from being an orthodox Muslim, Aurangzeb was also a ruler. He had enlisted Hindu warrior tribes, chiefly the Rajputs, as reliable defenders of his throne. Religion: Islam: Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad also known as Aurangzeb or by his title Alamgir was the sixth emperor of the Mughal Empire. Required fields are marked *. There is a trend among some historians to criticize the Auranzeb’s policy in the Deccan as wrongly devised and the Mughal Empire ultimately had to pay for it. The period after 1689also saw the growing disillusionment on the part of a section of the nobles against the political policies of the emperor. Aurangzeb’s policy of religious intolerance shook the foundations of the empire and resulted in the following: The costly, long-drawn and ruinous Deccan campaign. To adopt anti-Hindu measures. At the beginning of his reign, Aurangzeb prohibited the kalma being inscribed on coins, as it trampled underfoot or be defiled while passing from one hand to another. AURANGZEB (1618–1707), sixth and last of the Great Mughal emperors of India Born Muhi-ud-Din Muhammad, Aurangzeb was renowned for his long war in the south (the Deccan) and for his religious orthodoxy. As a result of these orders, a number of temples such as the famous temples of Vishwanath at Banaras and the temple of Keshava Rai at Mathura built by Bir Singh Deo Bundela during the reign of Jahangir were destroyed and a mosque; erected in their place. The contemporary European travelers suggest a different explanation of the measure. Akbar won over the Hindus by a policy of religious toleration. He was a strict … He was an excellent calligraphist (copyist of Quran). Religious Policy Aurangazeb was a staunch and orthodox Muslim in his personal life. Compare the religious policy of Akbar with that of Aurangzeb Get the answers you need, now! Religious Policy [ ] While Aurangzeb was extending the empire in the east and south, and consolidating his position on the northwest marches, he was also concerned with the strengthening of Islam throughout the kingdom. But these officials were instructed not to interfere in the private lives of citizens. When he was governor of Gujarat, Aurangzeb, ordered a number of temples in Gujarat to be destroyed, which often meant merely breaking the enrages and closing down the temples at the outset of his reign. Aurangzeb banned the ceremony of weighing the emperor against gold and silver and other articles on his birthdays. . It is significant that shortly after Aurangzeb’s death; the lead in abolishing the jizya was taken by Asad Khan and Zulfiqar Khan, two of the premier nobles of Aurangzeb. Emperor Aurangzeb is frequently viewed as a discriminatory figure, unlike his great grandfather Emperor Akbar, who is celebrated for his religious policy of tolerance. Aurangzeb's religious beliefs cannot be considered as the basis of his political policies. Aurangzeb, in fact, did not try to change the nature of the state, but reasserted its fundamentally Islamic character. The instrumental music and naubat (the royal band) were, however, continued. Muhtasibs were responsible for ensuring that the things, which were forbidden (such as intoxicants and gambling dens, etc) by the shara and the zawabits (secular decrees) were, as far as possible, not disobeyed openly. He reimposed the jiziya, the hated poll-tax on non- Muslims, which the wise and compassionate Akbar had abolished early in his region. Aurangzeb appointed Muhtasibs in all the provinces. Aurangzeb’s insistence on Islamic rule was based on his previous education and his strong religious convictions. After 1679, it seems that Aurangzeb's zeal to destroy temples decreased, as after this, there was no evidence of any large-scale destruction of temples in the south (between 1681 and his death in 1707). Aurangzeb struck hard against enemies who threatened the integrity or peace of the Mughal state, no matter their status or religion. A careful study of Sarkar’s writings recommend that his assessment was mainly based on his analysis of the first half of Aurangzeb’s reign which in his opinion, climaxed by the re-imposition of jizyah and his attempt to annex Marwar and subdue Mewar. Deccan policy of Aurangzeb had political as well as religious purpose. Aurangzeb thought that the death of the Raja had provided him with a further opportunity to advance in his policy of humiliating the Rajas and the Hindus in general. Muhtasibs were responsible for ensuring that the things, which were forbidden (such as intoxicants … Emperor Aurangzeb of India's Mughal Dynasty November 3, —March 3, was a ruthless leader who, despite his willingness to take the throne over the bodies of his brothers, went on to create a "golden age" of Indian civilization. The policy of laying primary importance on Islam and the Holy Law began to give way to a more pragmatic approach after Aurangzeb reached the Deccan and after the fall of Bijapur and Golconda and, the capture and execution of Sambhaji. Whereas, Aurangzeb was a staunch Muslim. Shibli Nomani, Zahiruddin Faruki and Ishtiaq Hussain Qureshi justify most of Aurangzeb's actions as political expedients. Saif Khan, the old administrator of Kashmir, is remembered as the builder of bridges. Conclusion: - After reading or researching it can said that Aurangzeb was very orthodox regarding his religious policy but indeed was a hardworking personality and he was of … Aurangzeb again introduced the jizyah (or the poll tax) (it was abolished by Akbar). Aurangzeb encountered political opposition from a number of quarters, such as the Marathas, Jats, etc., as they had adopted a new stance. Aurangzeb has been criticized by historians on the eve of his religious policy and administration. Therefore, in 1669, he took strict action especially when he learnt that in some of the temples in Thatta, Multan and especially at Banaras, both Hindus and Muslims used to come from great distances to learn from the Brahmans. She writes, “Throughout his reign Aurangzeb’s default policy was to ensure the well-being of Hindu religious institutions and their leaders. The essential unity of all the religions to its original position as the North-East the! 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